Transportation includes multiple operational environments (land, air, space, and water surface/sub-surface), each with its own technology hurdles. Vehicle designs must balance weight, shape, strength, and environmental impacts. Key environmental impacts are temperature (hot and cold), pressure, impact, and corrosion. The objective of transportation systems is to move people and equipment from one point to another safely and quickly. Research in 2D nanomaterials has identified composites that overcome each of the environmental impacts so that people and payloads can be reliably transported many times. The properties  of the nanomaterials increase the operational life of vehicles and reduce the mean time between failures. This results in lower lifecycle costs for transportation systems.

Land vehicles are challenged by environmental factors and topography. They must overcome water, rocks, ravines, elevations, and temperature extremes.  Planes are challenged by wind currents, temperature extremes, oxygen levels, and landing surfaces. Spacecraft address the same issues as planes. Additionally, they must survive the higher temperatures generated by friction from re-entry into the earth’s atmosphere. Sea vessels are challenged by various sea states (wave sizes). Submersibles must respond to the deep-water pressures. Both surface ships and submersibles have to anticipate saltwater corrosion.


2D Crystals form composites with polymers to provide enhanced capabilities including:

  1. 100X Strength of Steel
  2. Corrosion resiliency requiring no maintenance
  3. Flexibility to return to their original shape when impacted
  4. Lighter weight
  5. Greater functional temperature range (hot and cold)